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SQL HAVING 子句



HAVING 子句

在 SQL 中增加 HAVING 子句原因是,WHERE 关键字无法与 Aggregate 函数一起使用。

SQL HAVING 语法

SELECT column_name, aggregate_function(column_name)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name operator value
GROUP BY column_name
HAVING aggregate_function(column_name) operator value;


演示数据库

在本教程中,我们将使用众所周知的 Northwind 样本数据库。

下面是选自 "Orders" 表的数据:

OrderID CustomerID EmployeeID OrderDate ShipperID
10248 90 5 1996-07-04 3
10249 81 6 1996-07-05 1
10250 34 4 1996-07-08 2

选自 "Employees" 表的数据:

EmployeeID LastName FirstName BirthDate Photo Notes
1 Davolio Nancy 1968-12-08 EmpID1.pic Education includes a BA....
2 Fuller Andrew 1952-02-19 EmpID2.pic Andrew received his BTS....
3 Leverling Janet 1963-08-30 EmpID3.pic Janet has a BS degree....


SQL HAVING 实例

现在我们想要查找订单总数少于 2000 的客户。

我们使用下面的 SQL 语句:

下面的 SQL 语句查找注册超过 10 个订单的员工:

实例

SELECT Employees.LastName, COUNT(Orders.OrderID) AS NumberOfOrders FROM (Orders
INNER JOIN Employees
ON Orders.EmployeeID=Employees.EmployeeID)
GROUP BY LastName
HAVING COUNT(Orders.OrderID) > 10;

现在我们想哟啊查找员工 "Davolio" 或 "Fuller" 是否拥有超过 25 个订单。

我们在 SQL 语句中增加一个普通的 WHERE 子句:

实例

SELECT Employees.LastName, COUNT(Orders.OrderID) AS NumberOfOrders FROM Orders
INNER JOIN Employees
ON Orders.EmployeeID=Employees.EmployeeID
WHERE LastName='Davolio' OR LastName='Fuller'
GROUP BY LastName
HAVING COUNT(Orders.OrderID) > 25;